Friday, May 22, 2020

The Importance of Exercise for Cancer Prevention and...

The Importance of Exercise for Cancer Prevention and Recurrence Cancer is known as one the prevalent diseases in the world today. Every year millions of people are afflicted by this disease. Cancer is a class of diseases wherein cells grow out of control. There may have been no proven way to completely prevent cancer but there are steps that can lower your risk or keep it from recurring. Eating a healthy diet is always on the top of the list when it comes to cancer prevention. Certain components on food are found to help in lowering the risk of cancer, such as antioxidants, phytochemicals, and omega-3 fatty acids. Physical activity may also reduced cancer risk by preventing obesity, reducing hormone levels and inflammation, and†¦show more content†¦Some says that this is because those who exercise are less likely to use tobacco. Breast cancer - research shows that those who exercise from moderate to vigorous levels (three hours per week) have a 30% to 40% reduced risk in developing breast cancer. Uterine cancer - there is a 38% to 46 % lower risk for uterine cancer for women who exercise regularly. Exercise reduce the risk of obesity as well as decreasing the estrogen level, which are both factors in uterine cancer development. EXERCISE AFTER CANCER Many oncologists have asserted that moderate physical activity can improve the wellbeing of cancer survivors. A majority of studies that uses supervised exercise programs shows that physical activity has beneficial effects in the physical fitness of cancer survivors. Several positive effects can be seen in their functional capacity, physical well-being, functional well-being, and self-esteem among others. Based on another study made by L.M. Oldervoll, there is indeed a promising effect of exercise during and after cancer treatment. Exercise should be on moderate intensity for at least 2-3 hours a week. Moderate exercise is when you are doing a physical activity that increases your breathing and heart rate. This is done on a comfortable pace wherein you can still able to hold a conversation. Before starting any exerciseShow MoreRelatedResearch on American Cancer Society1648 Words   |  7 PagesAmerican Cancer Society, established in 1913, is a national community-based organization that is dedicated to fighting and eliminating cancer through prevention, research, education, advocacy, and service. The organization was established by 15 physicians and businessmen, in New York City, under the name American Society for the Control of Cancer. The name was changed to American Cancer Society in 1945, when the society was reorganized to recognize the new era. The symbol is composed of two serpentsRead MoreMy Paper On Pleural Effusions1674 Words   |  7 Pagescollection of fluid in the pleural space, the cavity surrou nding the lungs. Typically, there is 10 mL of fluid in this space to lubricate the pleura, however when disrupted by diseases such as pneumonia, pulmonary embolisms, congestive heart failure, or cancer, fluid begins to third space and collect in abnormal amounts. The biggest challenge then becomes dyspnea and tachypnea. This is because the extra fluid decreases pressure making it difficult for the lung to fully expand. Pleural effusions demand urgentRead MoreBreast Cancer : Cancer And Cancer Essay1741 Words   |  7 Pages Internationally, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer related death amongst women. (CITE) Each year an estimated 1.7 million new cases are diagnosed worldwide, and more than 500,000 women will die of the disease. (CITE) According to (CITE), somewhere in the world one woman is diagnosed with breast cancer every 19 seconds and more than three women die of breast cancer every five minutes worldwide. (CITE) Breast cancer is a heterogeneous condition thatRead More Patients with Cancer Essay2074 Words   |  9 PagesThis paper explores different peer-reviewed articles that attempts to shed some light on the phenomenon of the lived experience of patients with cancer; supporting the fact that individuality is a huge factor in the care of cancer patients. Manu types of cancers exist and patients should be treated as individuals versus as a disease or diagnosis. As oncology nurses we accumulate knowledge on a daily basis that may be revised in practice. Therefore, it becomes our innate duty to visit the literatureRead MoreEndometriosis5225 Words   |  21 Pages3 Aging †¢ 3 Pathophysiology o 3.1 Formation of ectopic endometrium ï‚ § 3.1.1 Retrograde menstruation ï‚ § 3.1.2 Other theories of endometrial formation o 3.2 Localization †¢ 4 Diagnosis o 4.1 Staging o 4.2 Markers o 4.3 Histopathology †¢ 5 Prevention †¢ 6 Management o 6.1 Hormonal medication o 6.2 Other medication o 6.3 Surgery o 6.4 Comparison of medicinal and surgical interventions o 6.5 Treatment of infertility †¢ 7 Prognosis †¢ 8 Epidemiology †¢ 9 History †¢ 10 References †¢ 11 FurtherRead MoreEndometriosis5236 Words   |  21 PagesGenetics o 2.3 Aging †¢ 3 Pathophysiology o 3.1 Formation of ectopic endometrium ï‚ § 3.1.1 Retrograde menstruation ï‚ § 3.1.2 Other theories of endometrial formation o 3.2 Localization †¢ 4 Diagnosis o 4.1 Staging o 4.2 Markers o 4.3 Histopathology †¢ 5 Prevention †¢ 6 Management o 6.1 Hormonal medication o 6.2 Other medication o 6.3 Surgery o 6.4 Comparison of medicinal and surgical interventions o 6.5 Treatment of infertility †¢ 7 Prognosis †¢ 8 Epidemiology †¢ 9 History †¢ 10 References †¢ 11 Further readingRead MoreIntroduction to Diseases10781 Words   |  44 PagesThis reduces the amount of air that can pass by. Common causes of asthma attacks are: †¢ Animals (pet hair or dander) †¢ Dust †¢ Changes in weather (most often cold weather) †¢ Chemicals in the air or in food †¢ Exercise †¢ Mold †¢ Pollen †¢ Respiratory infections, such as the common cold †¢ Strong emotions (stress) †¢ Tobacco smoke Most people with asthma have attacks separated by symptom-free periods. Some people have long-termRead MoreOcd - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment131367 Words   |  526 Pagesgreater emphasis on cognitive factors might enhance a behavioral account of OCD can be traced back to Carr (1974), McFall and Wollersheim (1979), Rachman and Hodgson (1980), and Salkovskis (1985). Behavior therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP), which emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, proved to be a highly effective treatment for many forms of OCD. Behavioral research on obsessions and compulsions offered new insights into the pathogenesis of the disorder. Yet, by the early 1980s,Read MoreHesi Practice31088 Words   |  125 Pagesdocuments that he is tachypneic. The nurse understands that tachypnea means A. frequent bowel sounds. B. heart rate greater than 100 beats/minute C. hyperventilation. D. respiratory rate greater than 20 breaths/minute 13. A client who has cervical cancer is scheduled t o undergo internal radiation. In teaching the client about the procedure, the nurse would be most accurate in telling the client A. she ll be in a private room with unrestricted activities. B. a bowel-cleansing procedure will precedeRead MoreHsg 6529900 Words   |  120 Pages7 Measuring performance 8 Auditing and reviewing performance 8 Chapter 2 Effective health and safety policies Inset 1 Accident ratio studies 13 The importance of people to an organisation 11 Avoiding loss - the total loss approach 12 10 Prime responsibility for accident and ill health prevention rests with management 14 The importance of organisational factors 14 Inset 2 Inset 3 A systematic approach 17 Human factors in industrial health and safety 15 Examples of health and safety

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Sigmund Freud The Father Of Psychoanalysis - 1420 Words

Sigmund Freud is an Austrian neurologist who is credited as the father of psychoanalysis. He became a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881. He was the one to create psychoanalysis, which is a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. While creating this, he developed therapeutic techniques, like the use of free association. Overall, Sigmund Freud is possibly the most influential person in psychology history. Sigmund Freud was born from Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Přà ­bor. He was the oldest of eight children. As he grew up he was excellent in the field of literature, proficient in German, French, Italian, Spanish, English, Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. He spent three years at the Vienna General Hospital working in various departments. Due to his time spent in Theodor Meynert’s psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. Sigmu nd started smoking tobacco at age 24, initially he smoked cigarettes, but soon after he started smoking cigars. He believed they could increase the capacity to work and that he could exercise self-control in moderating the amount of his smoking. Despite warnings from Wilhelm Fliess, he continued smoking and eventually developing buccal cancer. Freud suggested to Fliess in 1897 that addictions, including that to tobacco, were substitutes for masterbation, which as he said was â€Å"the one great habit† When heShow MoreRelatedSigmund Freud : The Father Of Psychoanalysis1615 Words   |  7 PagesSigmund Freud One very famous, significant leader who left a famous legacy was Sigmund Freud who helped thousands of people with mental illness with his psychoanalysis theories, by talking and being straight forward into the point on how a person can overcome their illness, he once said, â€Å"If you want to live a life be prepared for death† . Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1886 in Germany and died on September 23, 1939 and was an Austrian neurologist. During the years he was working he became famousRead MoreSigmund Freud, The Father of Psychoanalysis939 Words   |  4 Pages The father of psychoanalysis. Formerly known as a boy born to a poor wool merchant. Sigmund Freud was born to parents Jakob and Amalia, who at the time had not a single penny to their name. Freud graduated from high school with honors, and was fluent in many languages. At age 17 he attended the University of Vienna, with interests in law. However, he joined the university medical faculty, where he studied physiolog y, philosophy, and zoology. In 1881 he graduated with an MD. One year later he joinedRead MoreEssay on Sigmund Freud: The Father of Psychoanalysis1580 Words   |  7 Pages Sigmund Freud, also known as the father of psychoanalysis, was born May 6th of 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia. A few years later he moved to Vienna, Austria and years after to England. Sigmund Freud was known for connecting psychological issues with sexual issues. Freud demonstrated a broad perspective on things involving dreams, religion, and cultural artifacts. He focused on different states of the mind, such as unconsciousness. Freud relied on a local sexual repression issue to create theoriesRead MoreLiterature Review. Sigmund Freud, The Father Of Psychoanalysis,1497 Words   |  6 PagesLiterature Review Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, was a physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist, and influential thinker of the early twentieth century (Thornton, 2011). Freud is one of the commonly known superstars in the field of psychology, quickly becoming famous for his study of the unconscious. Freudian Psychology is a form of analysis that is derived from the work of Mr. Freud, largely focusing on his most profound concept, psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is an approach to personalityRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1283 Words   |  6 PagesSigmund Freud (1856-1939), is a pioneer in the field of psychology in various ways. His dedication to his field helped shape the minds of many nineteen-century contemporary schools of thought. Most notably, Freud’s work in psychoanalytic theory, according to Tan (2011) earned him the title of, â€Å"father of psychoanalysis† (p. 322). Moreover, Tan Taykeyesu (2011) report that Freud’s genius is not just in psychoanalysis, but also when we â€Å"think Oedipus complex, infantile sexuality, and repression†Read MoreSigmund Freud Essay1721 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Man is a wolf to man.† These are the words that surprised millions when Freud first opened the discussion of human nature (Freud). Sigmund Freud, born in 1856 and died in 1939, was known to be the father of psychoanalysis (Jones). He lived his whole life trying to reach into the human unconsciousness and unravel the puzzle of life, human personality, and human nature (Chiriac). Sigmund Freud was influenced by the environment post World War I, and influenced the world through his theories and hisRead MoreAnna Freud1216 Words   |  5 PagesANNA FREUD Anna Freud Anna Freud Selecting a woman that made significant contributions to the field of psychology between the years 1850 and 1950 is not an easy task as there is more than one woman who made significant contributions to the field of Psychology. Out of those talented women Anna Freud, overshadows her colleagues. Anna can be considered to have a fascinating background, which influenced her later development of unique theoretical perspectives. Her father, Sigmund Freud famousRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1568 Words   |  7 Pages Freud Sigmund Yifan Wang Current issues in history Vanier College 2014-11-11 Freud Sigmund In the 19th century, people progressed toward a new era of scientific revolution with new inventions and technologies. Doctors find treatment to heal cancer and people lives longer than before. On the other hand, Freud Sigmund the Jewish psychiatrist offered a new cure to mental illness that individual suffers from (The European Graduate School, 2012). Although he may have the most of influenceRead MoreEssay on The Comparison of Sigmund Freud and B.F. Skinner892 Words   |  4 PagesThe Comparison of Sigmund Freud and B.F. Skinner One name that jumps out at the mention of psychology, or the study there of, is the name of Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud is also known as the â€Å"Father of Psychoanalysis.† Freud was also known for having the tendency to trace nearly all psychological problems back to sexual issues. Although only parts of his theory of psychosexual development are still accepted by mainstream psychologists, Freuds theory of the Oedipal Complex has become a culturalRead MoreAnna Freuds Role in the History of Psychology1527 Words   |  7 PagesAnna Freud, born in 1895, was the daughter of Sigmund Freud, the well-known founder of psychology and the psychoanalytic theory. Anna Freud’s work with her father and his friends and associates as well as her own personal studies, curiosities, and analyses lead her to cofound psychoanalytic child psychology. An appealing woman who did not have much of a formal education, Anna Freud, had an extensive background in psychology, an interesting th eoretical perspective, and many contributions to the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

What Are Some Techniques Free Essays

Integrating Sources Techniques for Paraphrasing When you write a paraphrase, you restate other’s ideas in your own words. That is, y oh write the meaning of the author’s ideas. You use some of the author’s key terms, but you use many of your own words and sentence structures. We will write a custom essay sample on What  Are  Some  Techniques or any similar topic only for you Order Now You include in- text citation, including the author’s last name and year of publication. Following are some techniques you can use to help you paraphrase. An effective par phrase includes more Han one of these techniques. If you use only one of these techniques when paraphrase aging, you have not paraphrased effectively. 1 . Change a word from one part of speech to another Original: Medical professor John Swanson says that global changes are influencing t he spread of disease. Paraphrase: According to John Swanson, a professor of medicine, changes across the globe are causing diseases to spread dames, 2004). 2. Use Synonyms Original: The U. S. Government declared that the AIDS crisis poses a national security threat. The announcement followed an intelligence report that found high rates of HIVE infection c could lead to widespread political desalination. Paraphrase: The government of the United States announced that AIDS could harm t he nation’s security. The government warned the population after an important governmental study conch dude that political problems could result from large numbers of people infected with HIVE (Snell, 2005). 3. Change numbers and percentages to different forms Original: Minority groups in the United States have been hit hardest by the epidemic. African Americans, who make up 13 percent of the U. S. Population, accounted for 46 percent of the AIDS cases diagnosed in 1998. Paraphrase: The AIDS epidemic has mostly affected minorities in the United States. F or example, in 1998, less than 15 percent of the total population was African, but almost half of the people diagnosed with AIDS How to cite What  Are  Some  Techniques, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Right Place, Right Time by Olly Murs free essay sample

First One Direction broke into America. Then Cher Lloyd came. Then I heard a Rebecca Ferguson song on the radio. And now Mr. Olly Murs. They must feed all of the contestants Wheaties throughout taping â€Å"The X Factor† (UK). Thats the only explanation I can think of. Murs has recently swept the nation with the hit single â€Å"Troublemaker† off of his new album, â€Å"Right Place, Right Time.† And while Ill admit I thought it was Big Time Rush when I first heard it, its a great song. â€Å"Troublemaker† is the kind of song you dance to in your room, singing into your hairbrush like no one can hear you. It has a great beat and super-catchy lyrics. Definitely one of the best songs on the album. My favorite is â€Å"Dear Darlin.† It isnt a song that immediately has you nodding to the beat, but after playing it a couple times its nearly impossible to get out of your head – and why would you want to? Murs is telling the story of a short relationship with a major impact. We will write a custom essay sample on Right Place, Right Time by Olly Murs or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The music is a little forgettable, but what it lacks in melody is made up for with strong lyrics like â€Å"And nothing hurts like you, and no one understands what we went through. It was short, it was sweet, we tried.† On the fun side of the album is â€Å"What a Buzz.† Its a cute, upbeat tune about a first date that will have you dancing. Its catchy, and Murs talks in his adorable accent. Murs album has that great pop sound that we love from acts like One Direction. Yet songs like â€Å"Oh My Goodness,† â€Å"Hand on my Heart,† and â€Å"Dance With Me Tonight† remind me of old-school artists like Andy Grammar. Murs has found a nice balance, and I definitely think that he is one of the most talented Brits on the radio. While it does bother me that the America version is so different from the UK album (fewer songs, and three songs from his last album found their way onto this one), you should check it out if you havent yet.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Managing Complex Organizations Complexity Thinking and the Science and Art of Management by Kurt Richardson

Managing Complex Organizations Complexity Thinking and the Science and Art of Management by Kurt Richardson Mastering the art of managing the key processes of a complex organization is not an easy task. Because of the necessity to embrace a range of concepts and monitor numerous processes, one may fail to keep the track of the changes that occur within the company and, therefore, deliver a careful and a well put together plan based on the company’s future prospects.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on â€Å"Managing Complex Organizations: Complexity Thinking and the Science and Art of Management† by Kurt Richardson specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his article â€Å"Managing Complex Organizations: Complexity Thinking and the Science and Art of Management,† Kurt Richardson addresses the issue of coordinating the supervision of various processes within complex organizations and the challenges that the specified task presupposes. Richardson argues that, though it is impossible to incorporate every last deta il of the company’s operations into the analysis of the organization’s key advantages and the threats that it may be facing, there is, in fact, no need to do so; following several key rules on decision making and learning to make suppositions concerning the implications of certain steps in financial management of a company is enough to succeed in navigating the complex mechanism of a major enterprise. In order to understand the specifics of complex organizations operation, it is crucial to differentiate between complex and complicated. Though the key processes of an enterprise may be outstandingly easy to understand, they may still happen to be very hard to monitor simultaneously, which predisposes their complexity. As long as managing a company involves dealing with several processes that involve a different set of elements and are guided by different principles, the organization operation must be viewed as complex, even though these processes may be extremely simple. In order to navigate the complexity of the organizational processes, one must introduce the basic principles of logics into the organizational management, Richardson explains (Richardson 14). At this point, the key concepts of the Boolean logics should be brought up: identified by the author of the article as the â€Å"universal language† (Richardson 14), this language serves as the mediator between the language of computing and the ordinary interpersonal communication.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The necessity to incorporate computer logics into the company organism is becoming increasingly big at present, with the rapid integration of information technologies into the operation of companies. The concept of incompressibility is often used along with the idea of companies’ complexity; however, the very idea of absolute incompressibility should be taken with a grain of salt, Richardson explains. In order to handle the supervision of the organizational processes within a major corporation, one must focus on the elements that are viewed as the most important ones, leaving the minor issues, which are hard to embrace due to their number, out of the picture plane: â€Å"We might say that, in the absence of a complete representation, the overall behavior of a system is at least the sum of the behaviors of all our (simplified) models of that system† (Richardson 16). What makes the situation even more complicated is that the pluralism emerging as a result of incompressibility creates not the premises for an objective analysis, but the environment that demands making a complicated choice between several theoretical frameworks. In addition, the fact that the specifics of a team dynamics are supposed to be rendered through the lens of an individual makes the process of a company analysis nearly impossible to carry out. Defined b y Richardson as â€Å"incommensurable pluralism† (16), the phenomenon in question does not mean, though, that complex organizations cannot be evaluated in any possible manner. Instead, the limitations of the organization analysis and, therefore, a certain shallowness of the results attained in the end, should be kept in mind. Seeing that the complexity of the organizational processes structure is the key problem when it comes to analyzing the efficacy of a major company’s performance, it is reasonable to suggest that a complex approach towards the analysis may be of some help. To put it differently, Richardson suggests that complexity thinking can be the answer to the problem (Richardson 18).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on â€Å"Managing Complex Organizations: Complexity Thinking and the Science and Art of Management† by Kurt Richardson specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Defined by the author as the incorporation of several key schools of thinking, particularly, the neo-reductionist one, the metaphorical one and the critical pluralist one (Richardson 18–21), the phenomenon in question is not a silver bullet, yet it can be viewed as a legitimate strategy for approaching the analysis of the complex organizational structure of a corporation. Managing the processes of a complex organization is possible, despite the fact that one will never be able to embrace every single step in the course of the company’s operations. In order to handle the issues related to the evaluation of a consistently changing environment, one must follow key logical principles and be flexible enough to adopt the approach that the solution of a unique conflict demands. More importantly, one must get the company’s priorities straight before starting the analysis; otherwise, a range of essential factors will be omitted. As soon as the essential details are in the limelight, the assets o f a corporation of any size can be evaluated properly. Richardson, Kurt A. â€Å"Managing Complex Organizations: Complexity Thinking and the Science and Art of Management.† E:CO 10.2 (2008), 13–26. Print.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

10 Copper Facts

10 Copper Facts Copper is a beautiful and useful metallic element found throughout your home in both pure form and in chemical compounds. Copper is element No. 29 on the periodic table, with the element symbol Cu, from the Latin word cuprum. The name means  from the isle of Cyprus, which was known for its copper mines.   10 Copper Facts Copper has a reddish-metallic coloring unique among all the elements. The only other non-silvery metal on the periodic table is gold, which has a yellowish color. The addition of copper to gold is how red gold or rose gold is made.Copper was the first metal to be worked by man, along with gold and meteoritic iron. This is because these metals were among the few that exist in their native state, meaning the relatively pure metal could be found in nature. The use of copper dates back more than 10,000 years. Otzi the Iceman (3300 BCE) was found with an axe that had a head consisting of nearly pure copper. The icemans hair contained high levels of the toxin arsenic, which may indicate the man was exposed to the element during copper smelting.  Copper is an essential element for human nutrition. The mineral is critical for blood cell formation and is found in many foods and most water supplies. Foods high in copper include leafy greens, grains, potatoes, and beans. Although it takes a l ot of copper, its possible to get too much. Excess copper can cause jaundice, anemia, and diarrhea (which may be blue!). Copper readily forms alloys with other metals. Two of the best-known alloys are brass (copper and zinc) and bronze (copper and tin), although hundreds of alloys exist.Copper is a natural antibacterial agent. It is common to use brass door handles in public buildings (brass being a copper alloy) because they help prevent disease transmission. The metal is also toxic to invertebrates, so it is used on ship hulls to prevent the attachment of mussels and barnacles. It is also used to control algae.Copper has many desirable properties, characteristic of transition metals. It is soft, malleable, ductile, and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity, and it resists corrosion. Copper does eventually oxidize to form copper oxide, or verdigris, which is a green color. This oxidation is the reason the Statue of Liberty is green rather than reddish-orange. Its also the reason inexpensive jewelry, which contains copper, frequently discolors skin.In terms of industrial use, copper ranks thir d, behind iron and aluminum. Copper is used in wiring (60 percent of all copper used), plumbing, electronics, building construction, cookware, coins, and a host of other products. Copper in water, not chlorine, is the cause of hair turning green in swimming pools. There are two common oxidation states of copper, each with its own set of properties. One way to tell them apart is by the color of the emission spectrum when the ion is heated in a flame. Copper(I) turns a flame blue, while copper(II) produces a green flame.Nearly 80 percent of the copper that has been mined to date is still in use. Copper is a 100 percent recyclable metal. Its an abundant metal in Earths crust, present at concentrations of 50 parts per million.Copper readily forms simple binary compounds, which are chemical compounds consisting of only two elements. Examples of such compounds include copper oxide, copper sulfide, and copper chloride.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Corporate finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5500 words

Corporate finance - Essay Example That means it is the theory between the shareholders & the company managers. This term includes the expense of solving the potential conflicts between the two relevant groups. According to this theory, because of incomplete information & uncertainty, two types of problem can arise. Such as- A potential agency problem arises whenever the manager of a firm owns less than 100% of the firm’s common stocks. However, if the owner-manager incorporates & then sells some of the stocks to the outsiders, a potential conflict of interests immediately arises. In most large listed companies, potential conflicts of interests are important, as those firm’s managers generally own only a small percentage of the stocks. In this situation, shareholder wealth maximization could take a back seat to any number of conflicting managerial goals. In addition to the conflict between stockholders & managers, there can also be conflicts between creditors & stockholders. Creditors have a claim on the part of the firm’s earning stream of payment of interest & principle on the debt, & they have a claim on the firm’s assets in the event of bankruptcy. Stockholders have a control of decisions that affect the profitability & risk of the firm. Creditors lend the firm on the base of – 1) Capital Structure: A firm’s capital structure is that mix of debt & equity that maximizes the stock price. At any point of time, management has a specific target capital structure. Capital structure policy involves a trade-off between risk & return:- Financial flexibility or the ability to raise capital on reasonable terms under adverse conditions. The greater the probable future need for capital, & the worse the consequences of the capital shortage, the stronger the balance sheet should be. Managerial conservatism or aggressiveness that refers some managers are more aggressive than others, hence some firms are more inclined